LoginTC makes it easy for administrators to add multi-factor to MariaDB on their Unix systems. This document shows how to configure MariaDB to require two factor authentication for local and / or remote access via Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM). MySQL can be configured in a similar fashion.Architecture
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Before proceeding, please ensure you have the following:
Start by creating a LoginTC Application for your deployment. An Application represents a service (e.g. An application is a service (e.g., VPN or web application) that you want to protect. e) that you want to protect with LoginTC.
If you have already created a LoginTC Application for your deployment, then you may skip this section and proceed to Installation.Installation
These instructions assume a new environment. For a complete 2.X / 3.X to 4.X upgrade guide: LoginTC RADIUS Connector Upgrade Guide
logintc-useris used for SSH and web access. The default password is
logintcradius. You will be asked to change the default password on first boot of the appliance.
Endpoints describe how the appliance will authenticate your RADIUS-speaking device with an optional first factor and LoginTC as a second factor. Each endpoint has 4 Sections:1. LoginTC Settings
This section describes how the appliance itself authenticates against LoginTC Admin Panel with your LoginTC Application. Only users that are part of your organization and added to the domain configured will be able to authenticate.2. User Directory
This section describes how the appliance will conduct an optional first factor. Either against an existing LDAP, Active Directory or RADIUS server. If no first factor is selected, then only LoginTC will be used for authentication.3. Challenge Strategy / Passthrough
This section describes whether the appliance will perform a LoginTC challenge for an authenticating user. The default is to challenge all users. However with either a static list or Active Directory / LDAP Group you can control whom gets challenged to facilitate seamless testing and rollout.4. Client Settings
This section describes which RADIUS-speaking device will be connecting to the appliance and whether to encrypt API Key, password and secret parameters.
The web interface makes setting up an endpoint simple and straightforward. Each section has a Test feature, which validates each input value and reports all potential errors. Section specific validation simplifies troubleshooting and gets your infrastructure protected correctly faster.
Close the console and navigate to your appliance web interface URL. Use username
logintc-user and the password you set upon initial launch of the appliance. You will now configure the LoginTC RADIUS Connector.
Create a new endpoint file by clicking + Create your first endpoint:
A list of available Applications will be displayed from your LoginTC organization. Select which LoginTC Application to use:
Configure the application:
||The 40-character Application ID, retrieve Application ID|
||The 64-character Application API Key, retrieve Application API Key|
||Number of seconds that the RADIUS connector will wait for|
The Application ID and Application API Key are found on the LoginTC Admin Panel.
Make a note of what you set the Request Timeout to as you will need to use a larger timeout value in your RADIUS client. We recommend setting the Request Timeout value to 60 seconds in the LoginTC RADIUS Connector and setting the RADIUS authentication server timeout to 70 seconds in RADIUS Client. For more information see: Recommended settings for an optimal user experience for VPN access
Click Test to validate the values and then click Next:
Configure the user directory to be used for first authentication factor in conjunction with LoginTC. You may use Active Directory / LDAP or an existing RADIUS server. You may also opt not to use a first factor, in which case LoginTC will be the only authentication factor.
Active Directory / Generic LDAP Option
Select Active Directory if you have an AD Server. For all other LDAP-speaking directory services, such as OpenDJ or OpenLDAP, select Generic LDAP:
||Host or IP address of the LDAP server||
||Port if LDAP server uses non-standard (i.e.,
||DN of a user with read access to the directory||
||The password for the above bind_dn account||
||The top-level DN that you wish to query from||
||The attribute containing the user’s username||
||The attribute containing the user’s real name||
||The attribute containing the user’s email address|
||The name of the LDAP group to be sent back to the authenticating server.||
||CA certificate file (PEM format)||
Click Test to validate the values and then click Next.
Existing RADIUS Server Option
If you want to use your existing RADIUS server, select RADIUS:
||Host or IP address of the RADIUS server||
||Port if the RADIUS server uses non-standard (i.e.,
||The secret shared between the RADIUS server and the LoginTC RADIUS Connector||
Click Test to validate the values and then click Next.
Configure which users will be challenged with LoginTC. This allows you to control how LoginTC will be phased in for your users. This flexibility allows for seamless testing and roll out.
For example, with smaller or proof of concept deployments select the Static List option. Users on the static list will be challenged with LoginTC, while those not on the list will only be challenged with the configured First Authentication Factor. That means you will be able to test LoginTC without affecting existing users accessing your VPN.
For larger deployments you can elect to use the Active Directory or LDAP Group option. Only users part of a particular LDAP or Active Directory Group will be challenged with LoginTC. As your users are migrating to LoginTC your LDAP and Active Directory group policy will ensure that they will be challenged with LoginTC. Users not part of the group will only be challenged with the configured First Authentication Factor.
Challenge All Users
Select this option if you wish every user to be challenged with LoginTC.
Challenge Users Based on Static Username List
Select this option if you wish to have a static list of users that will be challenged with LoginTC. Good for small number of users.
LoginTC challenge users: a new line separated list of usernames. For example:
jane.doe jane.smith john.doe john.smith
Challenge Users Based on Group Membership
Select this option if you wish to have only users part of a particular Active Directory or LDAP group to be challenged with LoginTC. Good for medium and large number of users.
||Comma separated list of groups for which users will be challenged with LoginTC||
||Comma separated list of groups for which users will always bypass LoginTC||
Click Test to validate the values and then click Next.
Configure RADIUS client (e.g. your RADIUS-speaking VPN):
Client configuration values:
||A unique identifier of your RADIUS client||
||The IP address of your RADIUS client (e.g. your RADIUS-speaking VPN). Add additional IP Addresses by clicking plus.||
||The secret shared between the LoginTC RADIUS Connector and its client||
Under Authentication Mode select Direct
The LoginTC RADIUS Connector will directly and automatically perform the LoginTC second factor. See User Experience for more information.
Click Test to validate the values and then click Save.Testing
When you are ready to test your configuration, create a LoginTC user (if you haven’t already done so). The username should match your existing user. Provision a token by following the steps:
When you have loaded a token for your new user and domain, navigate to your appliance web interface URL:
Click Test Configuration:
Enter a valid username and password; if there is no password leave it blank. A simulated authentication request will be sent to the mobile or desktop device with the user token loaded. Approve the request to continue:
Congratulations! Your appliance can successfully broker first and second factor authentication. The only remaining step is to configure your RADIUS device!
If there was an error during testing, the following will appear:
In this case, click See logs (or click the Logs section):
Install PAM RADIUS module
The PAM RADIUS module from FreeRADIUS allows the use of RADIUS to PAM authentication. It can be leverage for almost any service that supports PAM-based authentication. If your system does not have pam_radius_auth package installed you will need to do so. Below are instructions for RedHat. For more information on pam_radius_auth and installing it on your system please see: FreeRADIUS PAM Authentication and Accounting module.
Install PAM RADIUS on RedHat
Step 1: Developer tools:
$ sudo yum install wget gcc pam pam-devel make -y
Step 2: Build PAM RADIUS module pre:
$ cd /tmp $ sudo wget ftp://ftp.freeradius.org/pub/radius/pam_radius-1.4.0.tar.gz $ sudo tar xvzf pam_radius-1.4.0.tar.gz $ cd pam_radius-1.4.0 $ sudo ./configure $ sudo make
Note: PAM RADIUS module version 1.4.0
At the time of this document being written 1.4.0 was the latest version of the PAM RADIUS module. For updates please see: FreeRADIUS PAM Authentication and Accounting module.
Step 3: Copy shared object library to appropriate folder
$ sudo cp pam_radius_auth.so /lib/security/
$ sudo cp pam_radius_auth.so /lib64/security/
The PAM RADIUS library is installed and ready to be configured.MariaDB LDAP Authentication Configuration
Step 1: Create or edit the
/etc/raddb/server file to point to your LoginTC RADIUS Connector:
$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/raddb $ sudo vi /etc/raddb/server
# server[:port] shared_secret timeout (s) # Example server (change to fit your needs): 192.168.1.40 bigsecret 60
server should match the IP Address of your LoginTC RADIUS Connector, while the
shared_secret should match to one configured in the LoginTC RADIUS Connector. The corresponding settings are configured in Client and Encryption portion of the LoginTC RADIUS Connector.
We recommend the maximum timeout of 60 seconds allowed by the PAM RADIUS module.
$ sudo vi /etc/pam.d/mysql
Option 1: Use only LoginTC RADIUS Connector for authentication:
#%PAM-1.0 auth required pam_radius_auth.so account include system-auth password include system-auth session include system-auth
Option 2: Use local password authentication AND LoginTC RADIUS Connector for authentication:
#%PAM-1.0 auth required pam_radius_auth.so auth include password-auth account include system-auth password include system-auth session include system-auth
mysql process read-access to
In order to leverage PAM authentication additional configuration may be required. The PAM RADIUS module uses
unix_chkpwd to handle authentication, which in turn requires read access to
/etc/shadow. Since the process running the PAM RADIUS module will be
mysql it will require read-access to
/etc/shadow. Opening up read-access to
/etc/shadow does impose a security risk.
$ sudo groupadd -r shadow $ sudo usermod -a -G shadow mysql $ sudo chown root:shadow /etc/shadow $ sudo chmod g+r /etc/shadow
MariaDB > INSTALL SONAME 'auth_pam';
Step 4: Restart
$ sudo /usr/sbin/mysqld restart
You are now ready to test two-factor authentication to MariaDB.Testing MariaDB
Test by accessing MariaDB. The username of the MariaDB user must match the username of the user created in your organization and added to the domain you have configured to authenticate against.
Users required to authenticate with LoginTC can be added to MariaDB:
MariaDB > CREATE USER john.doe@'%' IDENTIFIED VIA pam; GRANT SELECT ON testdb.* TO john.doe IDENTIFIED VIA pam; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Please follow your organization best practice for adding users to MariaDB with appropriate access rights and permissions. To test access:
$ mysql -u john.doe
You will be prompted for a password and then challenged with LoginTC.User Management
There are several options for managing your users within LoginTC:
Logs can be found on the Logs tab:
For troubleshooting related to the PAM RADIUS module please refer to: FreeRADIUS PAM Authentication and Accounting module.
If you are unable to authenticate, navigate to your appliance web interface URL and click Status:
Ensure that all the status checks pass. For additional troubleshooting, click Logs:
Also make sure to check the MariaDB logs and secure logs on the Linux machine hosting MariaDB (
For any additional help please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Expect a speedy reply.
NOTE: Upgrade time
Upgrade can take 10-15 minutes, please be patient.
Important: LoginTC RADIUS Connector 3.X End-of-life
The LoginTC RADIUS Connector 3.X virtual appliance is built with CentOS 7.9. CentOS 7.X is End of Lifetime (EOL) June 30th, 2024. Although the appliance will still function it will no longer receive updates and nor will it be officially supported.
New LoginTC RADIUS Connector 4.X
A new LoginTC RADIUS Connector 4.X virtual appliance has been created. The Operating System will be supported for many years. Inline upgrade is not supported. As a result upgrade is deploying a new appliance. The appliance has been significantly revamped and although the underlying functionality is identical, it has many new features to take advantage of.
Complete 3.X to 4.X upgrade guide: LoginTC RADIUS Connector Upgrade Guide